Venous ulcer

What are ulcers?

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) with ulceration is a common condition affecting 2-5% of the population. Ulcers are wounds or open sores that will not heal or keep returning. Historically, CVI was known as postphlebitic syndrome and postthrombotic syndrome, both of which refer to the aetiology of most cases. However, these names have been abandoned because they fail to recognize another common cause of the disease, the congenital absence of venous valves.
What are the symptoms of Ulcers?

Ulcers may or may not be painful. The patient generally has a swollen leg and may feel burning or itching. There may also be a rash, redness, brown discoloration or dry, scaly skin.

What are the types of leg and foot ulcers?

The three most common types of leg and foot ulcers include:

Venous stasis ulcers
Arterial (ischemic ulcers)
Neurotrophic (diabetic)

Ulcers are typically defined by the appearance of the ulcer, the ulcer location, and the way the borders and surrounding skin of the ulcer look.

Venous stasis ulcers – Appearance

Typically, these lesions occur around the inner side just above the ankle, where venous pressure is greatest due to the presence of large communicating veins. The base of a venous ulcer is usually red. It may also be covered with yellow fibrous tissue or there may be a green or yellow discharge if the ulcer is infected. Fluid drainage can be significant with this type of ulcer.


Ulcers occurs in people with poor blood circulation or in veins damaged from thrombosis . It can be a complication due to a medical or surgical procedure or following thrombosis. Since Phlebitis is often caused by an injury to a vein., one is more likely to get phlebitis in veins where the blood flows more slowly than normal, such as varicose veins. A clot, called a thrombus , can form and adhere to the vein wall. Since there are no muscles to push the clot, it stays stuck inside the vein and blocks blood flow.

Some risk factors for phlebitis include the following:

Prolonged inactivity – Staying in bed or sitting for many hours, as in a car or on an airplane, creating stagnant or slow flow of blood from the legs in a dependent position (This pooling of blood in the legs leads to thrombus formation.)

Sedentary lifestyle – Not getting any exercise

Overweight and obesity

Cigarette smoking

Certain medical conditions, such as cancer or blood disorders, that increase the clotting potential of the blood

Injury to your arms or legs

Hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills


Varicose veins

Symptoms and Complications

The area around the vein is red, swollen, and often painful. Because the blood in the vein tends to clot, the vein feels hard, not soft like a normal vein. The vein can feel hard down its entire length.

Superficial phlebitis

There is usually a slow onset of a painful tender red area along a superficial vein under the skin. A long, thin red area may be seen as the inflammation follows a superficial vein.
This area may feel hard, warm, and tender. The skin around the vein may be itchy and swollen.
Symptoms may be worse when the leg is lowered, especially when first getting out of bed in the morning.
Sometimes phlebitis may occur where a peripheral intravenous line was started. The surrounding area is swollen and may be sore and tender along the vein.
If an infection is present, symptoms may include redness, fever, pain, swelling, or breakdown of the skin.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

This can be similar in presentation to superficial phlebitis, but some people may have no symptoms.
One may have pain and swelling throughout the entire limb. For example, one side of the lower leg may swell for no apparent reason.

Some people also get fever from a superimposed bacterial infection and skin discoloration and/or ulcers if the condition becomes chronic and inadequately treated earlier.

When to Seek Medical Care

Call your health care provider if you have signs and symptoms of swelling, pain, and inflamed superficial veins on the arms or legs. If you are not better in a week or two, get re-evaluated to make sure you don’t have a more serious condition.

Deep vein thrombophlebitis requires immediate medical care. If you have any of these signs and symptoms, go to a hospital emergency department for evaluation:

High fever with any symptoms in an arm or leg

Lumps in a leg

Severe pain and swelling in an arm or leg

New, unexplained significant shortness of breath, which could be the first tip-off that a blood clot has already travelled to your lung

Making the Diagnosis

Your health care provider can tell that someone has phlebitis by examining the veins. An ultrasound scan may be performed to see if the phlebitis has spread into a deep vein. Ultrasound can detect clots or blockage of blood flow, especially in larger, more proximal (upper leg) veins. A small hand-held instrument (probe) is pressed against your skin to help identify blood clots and where the obstruction is. This is a painless, non-invasive test.

Occasionally a venogram is needed to identify blood clots in the smaller, more distal veins. This is an invasive procedure that requires injecting x-ray dye or contrast material into a vein on the foot, then an x-ray is taken of the flow of the dye up the leg.

Treatment and Prevention

Phlebitis usually improves on its own in a few days, although it may take a few weeks for the lumps and pain to disappear. Treatment usually consists of warm soaks, rest, and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) or ibuprofen. Wearing elastic compression stockings also can help. The doctor might also remove the blood clot under local anaesthetic.

To prevent venous stasis ulcer, avoid smoking and participate in moderate physical activity to maintain muscle tone and promote circulation.

An anti-inflammatory drug, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, can help lessen the pain and inflammation.

If you increase your walking, you increase blood flow. This helps prevent blood clots from developing.

Prescription leg compression stockings (knee or thigh high) improve your blood flow and may help to relieve your pain and swelling.

Avoid bed rest for prolonged periods. It can make your symptoms worse.

If you have deep vein thrombophlebitis, you will probably need to stay in the hospital for a few days for diagnosis and treatment to ensure that no complications occur.

Medical Treatment

If your evaluation shows superficial phlebitis and you are otherwise healthy, you can go home. You will need to use compression stockings, heparin-containing ointmnets and anti-inflammatory medications to control your symptoms. Additional management involves elevation of the arm/leg and application of warm compresses. Only a few cases require antibiotics.

If you have a history of deep vein thrombophlebitis, or if the phlebitis might possibly spread to the deep veins, you will need to take a blood thinner (anticoagulant). The duration of anticoagulant treatment is usually between 3-6 months.

If you have signs of infection, you will need to take an antibiotic.

Phlebitis in the superficial veins is rarely serious and usually responds to pain control, elevation, and warm compresses for 1-2 weeks. For more information about deep vein thrombophlebitis and its prognosis, see Blood Clot in the Legs.

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